Corns are a cone-shaped piece of hardened skin that often forms on the toe joints. As the corn increases in size, it can often press on the nerves in your toes, causing unwanted pain and stress on your joints. With respect to reflexology, corns, like callouses, represent an imbalance in other parts of your body. For example, a corn located on the outside portion of your pinkie toe may indicate a pain or injury in your shoulder. Bunions Those who have other foot problems, such as hammer-foot, arthritis and bunions, develop calluses because of the prominence of the bone that causes friction resulting in calluses. Bunions are boney prominences that can form on the top and side of the great toe bone (first metatarsal bone) and can cause shoe issues because they will cause the foot to widen making it a nightmare to find the right closed shoe to wear. Bunions develop because of abnormal pronation, which is the collapsing of the arch over a prolonged period of time. The muscles in the arch will eventually weaken and fatigue allowing the great toe to drift towards the second toe forming the bump on the great toe. No one wakes up in the morning and discovers that they have just developed a bunion! Calluses typically develop as a result of excessive pressure or friction and are the body's way of protecting itself from the constant rubbing of a foreign object. Using a home remedy to soften up these thickened areas of skin provides an inexpensive way for most people to clean up these unsightly growths, but it's only one step in the process of getting rid of them for good. The Basics Yes, running can trash the feet if you’re not careful. I can pretty much guarantee that your shoes suck and are too small, and you need new ones NOW. Your shoes should not be rubbing on your toenails or your corns. Heat-mouldable Orthotics are cheaper alternatives to expensive customised Orthotics that can cost 0 - 0 per pair. They are standard 'off-the-shelf' flexible devices made from medium density EVA material. The device can be heated to slightly alter its shape. Sometimes, wedges are added for a more customised result. Heat-mouldable Orthotics cost around 0 to 0 and are much easier to get used to than custom rigid Orthotics. A study from the USA "identified the nature of a person's walk as a source of chronic lower back pain," The study further showed more than a fifty percent improvement in alleviation of back pain after wearing orthotics. Metatarsalgia, the most common problem associated with high heels, occurs when one or more of the metatarsal heads become inflammed due to increased pressure. This can cause pain at the "metatarsal area" which can be found below the toes. People who have this experience a burning and tingling sensation on the ball of the foot and may also be more prone to calluses in the same area. The prolonged use of high heels can worsen the situation over time. User orthotic insoles to correct stance and create a more precise floor mechanism to provide a comfortable walking movement and alleviate pressure from the ball of the foot. Calluses and corns on the feet may also be caused by repeated pressure due to sports (such as a callus on the bottom of a runner’s foot), an odd way of walking (abnormal gait), or an underlying bone structure, such as flat feet or bone spurs (small, bony growths that form along joints). Calluses and corns generally are diagnosed during a physical exam. Your doctor may also ask you questions about your work, your hobbies, or the types of shoes you wear. An X-ray of the foot may be done if your doctor suspects a problem with the underlying bones. This movement of the big toe laterally is reflected by the term, "valgus" of the bunion term, hallux valgus. Whenever you see the word "valgus", it means that something is misaligned, and moving laterally or towards the outside of the body. If the big toe moved the opposite direction of the other toes, this would be called "varus" and it would not be a bunion. Bunions can also be associated with different diseases, such as cerebral palsy, Down's syndrome, Ehler-Danlos syndrome, multiple sclerosis, and different forms of arthritis. Bunions are often considered a hereditary condition, but you don't have to have a family member with bunions to develop them. Wearing high heels often can cause foot pain and other problems such as bunions, corns, calluses, and hammertoes. A survey conducted by the American Podiatric Medical Association revealed that 73 percent of women have a foot issue related to the shoes that they wear. Women who wear high heels need to take precautions as well as recognize and treat problems early to avoid not just corns, but other problems associated with wearing high heels. Weakness in the foot can cause falling arches, bunions and hammer toes. These are potentially very painful. However, you can get a lot of relief by a few easy exercises. When you are washing and drying your feet, it is important to inspect your feet for cuts, sores, bruises or any changes in your toenails. You may need to use a mirror to check the bottoms of your feet. If you see any corns and calluses, do not try to remove them; you will need to let your doctor or podiatrist see them and treat them accordingly. Don’t wear high heels all day every day. Get yourself a nice pair of orthopedic sandals – or even soccer slides, these feel awesome after you’ve been wearing heels – to de-stress your piggies. Pronation occurs every time the foot hits the ground. Normal pronation occurs when the foot naturally adjusts to and absorbs the shock of a new walking surface. The arch starts to “pronate” (or flatten out) once it has hit the surface. During normal pronation, this flattening out eventually stops. A longer second toe will hit the ground before the first toe, and this can cause abnormal pronation, which means that the foot continues to roll inward when it hits the ground. The first toe can not do the normal job of supporting most of the foot’s weight, and extra stress is placed on the second toe.